Caucasian Rugs

Handmade rugs from the Caucasus region with intricate geometric patterns. Antique Caucasian Rugs and Carpets for sale

  • Styles
  • Origin
  • Colour
  • Caucasian Rugs
  • Pattern
  • Material

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Overview
    Caucasian rugs hold the weight of history within their threads, which is why they are the object of such interest and awe for so many people. The patterns, which could be symbolic of something religious, talismanic, or totemic, reveal the weavers' histories and the traditions passed down from one generation to the next. It takes significant expertise and knowledge of many weaving techniques that may be used for diverse effects, many different examples of which may be observed in a single rug to create these designs while maintaining structural integrity.
  • What Is A Caucasian Rug?

    The Caucasus Carpet is an example of oriental rugs produced in the Caucasus region. The name is derived from the word "rui", which means carpet or rug, and "savan", meaning Caucasian.

    The Caucasus is a historical term that refers to the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia (known as the Southern Caucasus), Iran, Russia, Turkey and Turkmenistan. It was used by the Greeks as early as the 5th century BC and later became part of the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Transcaucasia. This means that a Turkish rug is also a Caucasian rug.

    There are many different styles of Caucasian rugs available. Some are very simple, while others are quite elaborate. 

    Original Name: فرش قفقازی

    Alternative Name(s): Caucasus Carpet, Caucasus Rug

  • The History Of Caucasian Rugs

    The Caucasus region is between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Formerly, southern Russia, surrounded on the east by the Caspian Sea and on the west by the Black Sea. The Caucasus mountain range splits the region diagonally from northwest to southeast. The Trans-Caucasus is the region south of the mountain range where most Caucasian rugs were (and are still) made.

    In ancient times, the Caucasus Mountains were inhabited by nomadic tribes who lived off their herds of sheep and goats. These people traded with other civilizations, such as Egypt and Mesopotamia, through the Silk Road.

    In the 6th century AD, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent his general Belisarius into the Caucasus to conquer the Sassanid Persian Empire. He conquered the cities of Tiflis and Kars, and established trade routes throughout the region.

    During the 7th century, the Arabs invaded the Caucasus and settled there. Their influence spread throughout the region, and they introduced new weaving styles. By the 10th century, the Arab style had become popular among the local population.

    Byzantine artisans began producing carpets in the 11th century. During this time, the Byzantines were at war with the Seljuk Turks, so many of these carpets were exported to Persia.

    Byzantine carpets were woven using a flat weave technique. The patterns were typically geometric, floral or animal. Some carpets were even woven with gold thread.

    As early as the 13th century, rug weaving was practised in the Karabagh region. When archaeological sites from as far back as 2500 BC were excavated, weaving craft evidence was discovered. The Karabagh rug was among the most renowned Caucasus exports to mediaeval Europe.

    The Ottoman Turks took control of the Caucasus in 1468. They brought their own style of weaving to the region, and the production of carpets increased.

    Southern Dagestan and the Caucasus were all a part of the Persian Empire up until the early 19th century, however, the Russians invaded the Caucasus during the 18th century and brought their own design style to the region, taking control of some parts of the Northeast Caucasus.

    Today, the majority of Caucasian rugs are still handmade, however, some are now machine-made.

  • How Are Caucasian Rugs Made?

    A rug is a handmade item comprised of two parts: the rug's skeleton, which is made of horizontal and vertical threads called "wefts" and "warps," and the rug's "pile," which is made by knotting various thread colours to resemble a picture.

    The warp, weft and pile of the older Caucasian carpets are manufactured with hand-spun wool yarns. The natural colours are vivid and distinct. The carpets have a solid reputation and are durable due to the high-grade wool and Turkish knots.

    More recent carpets produced after 1925 have cotton warps and simpler patterns. The names Kazak, Derbent, Mikrach, Gendje, Erivan, Sjirvan and Akhty are most frequently seen on these carpets.

    Modern Pakistani carpets are made with Caucasian carpets in mind, which are coloured with natural plant dyes. These rugs are sturdy and have relatively short piles and are commonly known as "Kazak".

  • The Characteristics Of Caucasian Rugs

    Most Caucasian rugs are made with natural fibres, such as cotton, wool and silk. Cotton is the most common fibre used today. Wool is more expensive than cotton, but it lasts longer and is warmer.

    The Caucasus carpets are of a straightforward character, with historical models being of superior quality to modern variants. The reason for this is due to the type of material that was employed. This region used to be famous for hand knotted rugs from hand-spun wool with natural colours, but now commercial spun wool is widespread. An Antique Caucasian Rug is therefore highly sought after.

    Antique rugs were typically brightly coloured and geometric in design. The symmetric knot is used with average knot densities ranging from 60 per square inch for Kazak rugs to 114 per square inch for Kuba rugs. The pile is made of wool. The warps aren't coloured. Between each row of knots, these carpets have two or more wefts, with a few exceptions. Rugs from the Caucasus region with cotton foundations have higher knot densities than those with wool foundations.

    The quality of Caucasian rugs ranges from medium to fine, and Armenia is the leading producer. Classic or modern variants of traditional designs are available. Knot densities range from 78 knots per square inch to 162 knots per square inch, depending on the commercial grade. Novoexport, a part of the Russian agency, managed the export of such rugs. After export, these rugs are given a chemical wash to increase the colour tone and contrast.

    Kurdish weavers in the Caucasus are credited with Soumak bags and Mafrash, while comparable pieces are attributed to the Shahsavan in Iran. Large Soumaks, many of them from Kuba, were woven throughout the Caucasus.

    Some Caucasian rugs feature a woven completion date in Persian Farsi numerals that corresponds to the Mohammedan (Islamic) year, which begins with the birth year of the Prophet Mohammed in 579 CE. The Islamic year was usually written above the word "date," which is pronounced "seneh."

    Because many nomadic weavers were illiterate during this time, the year was sometimes weaved erroneously or without a numeric digit. Because the Farsi word for a date has a dot above one of the letters that looks like a zero, zero is usually absent. This has resulted in a misunderstanding about how to read dates correctly. Weavers may have followed a design sketch when weaving the date but were unaware that the design was inverted.

    Many village weavers would sometimes repeat the same design patterns for numerous years, and some carpets could have been completed up to twenty years after the woven date. Armenians adhered to Christian dates, which can be seen on several woven items. These Caucasian rugs were primarily created in the Armenian-populated districts of Kazak and Karabagh in the southwestern Caucasus.

    Collectors have been aggressive in acquiring antique Caucasian rugs from all weaving districts, willing to pay up to six figures for them on some occasions.

    Antique Caucasian rugs are considered true works of art. Armenian weavers' innovative and famous Dragon or animal conflict themes are now preserved in museums and private collections worldwide. The Western world's enthusiasm for the charm and beauty of Caucasian rugs has been captured by tribal imaginings woven into many stunning designs.

    Caucasian Rugs Are Made From The Finest Raw Materials

    Wool is the most common material used to make Caucasian rugs; other materials include silk, cotton, linen, jute, hemp and bamboo.

    Wool is soft and durable, making it ideal for use in rugs. It is available in different weights, from fine to heavy, and comes in various shades.

    Silk is strong and resilient, making it perfect for creating rugs. It is also very expensive, so only the finest quality is used.

    Their warp is constructed of wool or, in some cases, a combination of goat hair and wool. Cotton, wool or a combination of wool and goat hair make up the weft. Cotton was used for the entire foundation by the early twentieth century. Wool is commonly used for the weave in the western parts of Kazak and Karabagh.

    Cotton is primarily used for the weft in Baku, Kuba, Shirvan, Talish, Moghan, Daghestan and other districts in the eastern Caucasus region. Very beautiful rugs with silk foundations were greatly wanted as dowry gifts and gifts for senior government officials in the Caucasian Shirvan and Kuba areas.

    The rug pile is composed of sheep's wool, but there are a few silk pile rugs. The pile height was chosen in response to the district's topographical setting.

    Standard Colours

    Caucasian rugs are generally red, brown, black, blue, green, yellow, white, orange, purple, pink, grey, tan, cream, silver, gold or combinations thereof. The colours are applied to the warp threads first, and then the weft threads are added.

    The colours are vibrant and contrasted. Despite trade names like "Kuba," "Shirvân," or "Talish," regional attribution of rugs within the Caucasus is difficult.

    The design features were used in all colour hues throughout the region. The field and borders of Caucasian weavings were predominantly reds, dark blues or ivory. Shades of green, blue, cinnamon, gold and yellow were occasionally employed for the background, medallions and borders in the eastern areas, such as Shirvan, Daghestan, Kuba and Baku.

    For the field, medallions and borders, the Karabagh district used black, blue-black, or pomegranate-red (from cochineal). Shades of green were used for the background, borders and medallions in several areas of the Kazak district, such as Karatchopf, Fachralo, Bordjalou and Sewan. On a limited scale, certain Kazak communities utilised grey for the medallion and borders. Naturally coloured brown and black sheep fleece was used in the design outlines and in the borders and field on occasion.

    Patterns, Styles & Common Designs

    Caucasian rugs are generally symmetrical. Most designs consist of simple shapes, such as circles, squares, triangles, diamonds and hexagons. There are also more complex designs, such as flowers, animals, birds, insects and plants.

    Most designs have a central medallion surrounded by smaller motifs. The colours may vary depending on the type of material being used. Wool rugs tend to use natural shades, while silk rugs use bright colours.

    Typically, Caucasian kilims and palaces are styles typically woven in a single piece. The tapestry structure is a split weave. To create a web look, the warp ends are knotted. A typical motif is made up of rows of smaller geometric motifs or adjacent or compressed huge geometric medallions that resemble palmettes.

    In the early nineteenth century, prayer rugs were commonly created by the Muslim people for personal daily meditation and selling. A Mihrab, or arch design, is found on prayer carpets. A hand sign was woven into each corner above the arch to aid hand placement during prayers.

    Objects experienced by tribes daily, such as animals, birds, stars, worms, landscapes (trees, bushes, and branches), various flowers, flower heads with leaf and vine patterns and household items, are motifs found in Caucasian rugs. In addition, religious and inspirational designs were woven. Symbolic messages of power can be found on some rugs in the design and colours.

    A few Caucasian rugs have all-over designs of small, repeating geometric components.

    A vertically repeating diamond medallion alternating with two hexagons or circular motifs was a popular design in the nineteenth century, as were dragon Soumaks based on piled dragon rugs. The Soumak structure was woven with a design of huge "S" shapes that were considered to depict dragons.

    Floral themes prevalent in French carpets began to be woven throughout the Caucasus, primarily in the Karabagh province. These patterns were adopted during the Tsar period to match the fashionable French-style furnishings favoured by the Russian aristocracy and nobles.

    Weaving Technique

    Caucasian rugs are traditionally woven on a handloom. This method produces a flat weave pattern. A Caucasian weaver uses two horizontal threads called warp beams and one vertical thread called a woof beam.

    The colours are dyed onto the fibres before being woven. Wool and silk yarns are most commonly used. Cotton yarns have been used occasionally.

    Some carpets use natural dyes, while others use synthetic dyes. Natural dyes include indigo, madder root, cochineal, wood and logwood. Synthetic dyes include acid dyes, basic dyes, direct dyes, reactive dyes and disperse dyes.

    Most Caucasian rugs are woven in a plain weave pattern. The number of rows varies depending on the size of the rug.

  • Types Of Caucasian Rugs

    Caucasian rugs are essentially categorized by their local of origin within the Caucasus region.

    The Caucasus area is known for its Daghestan, Shirvan, Gendje, Kazakh (or Kazak), and Quba rug designs. This category also includes a number of modern northern Iranian carpet designs, including the Ardabil carpets.


    The northern Caucasus is where Aghestan carpets are produced. The mihrabs are usually six-sided, and the field is almost always covered with a diamond trellis pattern containing multicoloured flowers. Prayer motifs are particularly prevalent. Typically, the field is an ivory-coloured tint.


    A yellow, red, white and blue colour palette is characteristic of Gendje. Sizes for lengthy runners are typical. These carpets can have a broad range of patterns, such as stylised flowers, crosses and most frequently long, vivid stripes with various figures embedded in them.


    They were woven in the Southern region of the Caucasus and are very popular among collectors and retail customers. Kazak designs feature bold, contrasting colours and large, simple geometric designs. The field of an antique Kazak usually includes one or more large geometric medallions that smaller geometric motifs may surround.


    Shirvan rugs are made in the Caucasus's southeastern region. The Turkish knot is used to weave them. Shirvans are more finely woven than the ordinary Caucasian Kazakh rug, yet they are not quite as finely woven as Kubas. Typically, they have two chord edges.

    Often included in the Shirvan group of Caucasian rugs, Akstafa rugs are one of their subcategories and come from southwest Shirvan in Azerbaijan, which is located in the eastern Caucasus and close to the Caspian Sea.

    Quba (Kuba)

    Turkish knots are used to create their delicate weave. Kuba carpets come in various styles, including Seichours and Perepedils, among others.

  • Traditional Caucasian Rugs vs Contemporary Caucasian Rugs

    Traditional Caucasian carpets have a rich history, with patterns and production methods being passed down from generation to generation. Most traditional carpets in use today have their roots in Europe and Asia in the 18th century. That is why Oriental rugs or Persian carpets are frequently used interchangeably with traditional rugs. As a result, their patterns are based on ancient patterns that give a room a timeless beauty and grandeur. Antique rug colour palettes are typically determined by the dyes readily available during the period. Rich reds, blues and golds are common colours in a traditional Persian rug, but earthier hues like orange, brown and green, which may be produced with vegetable dyes, are more common in tribal-style rugs. Traditional rug designs frequently contain straight lines, floral motifs, medallions in the centre and complicated geometric forms like diamonds, hexagons and octagons.

    On the other hand, similarly to a work of modern art, contemporary rugs sometimes have striking hues, unusual patterns, or even graphic designs. They might look free-form in appearance but often take on an architectural and contemporary approach. However, a modern rug's appearance and texture are very different from a traditional rug. They may still have vintage forms and patterns. A modern room is an ideal match for contemporary carpets. The most common modern rug design is the geometric style, which is still in demand today. Because of their simplicity, they may be produced in practically any quality, from tufted and machine-made materials to fine hand-knotted materials like those in The London House Rugs' collection.

    Generally speaking, a lot of rug patterns fit within these big categories. The key to selecting the perfect style of carpeting for your property is to complement the classic or modern design of your current furnishings or the house itself. Following that, you may choose the appropriate rug selection. Customers can fulfil their rug needs by going to a reputable rug retailer like London House Rugs. Finding the perfect match for your property won't be difficult thanks to the large selection of alternatives available in our rug store, which includes many possibilities in various sizes and colour schemes.

  • What Makes Caucasian Rugs Special?

    The Caucasus has produced distinctive rugs since the end of the 18th century, and the antique Caucasian rugs are often produced as rural crafts rather than magnificent and intricate urban masterpieces. The most distinctive characteristics of Caucasian carpets are their vivid primary coloured geometric and tribal patterns.

    Caucasian Carpets Have a Unique History

    You are not just purchasing a straightforward rug when you discover Caucasian carpets for sale. Instead, you are purchasing a piece of culture and history. The Caucasus is where Caucasian rugs have their origins. Numerous tribes in this area have been producing Caucasian rugs for ages. Every tribe has its own culture, reflected in the patterns on the carpets made in various areas. Due to the superior wool used in their creation, Caucasian rugs are among the finest kept. Many Caucasian rugs feature designs that reflect the local environment and culture.

    For instance, many rugs will include floral and animal motifs, while others can feature symmetrical shapes. It's vital to remember that the Caucasus region once had a sizable nomadic population. As a result, the carpets were put to practical use and served as the ground covering for their tents. Even though you don't reside in a tent, you may still use these hand-knotted Caucasian rugs to decorate your home!

    Caucasian Rugs Last a Long Time

    Having a distinctive rug design is fantastic, but it serves no purpose if it falls apart in a few months. You wouldn't want to frequently replace the rugs in your home because doing so may be pretty pricey. Caucasian rugs excel in this area in terms of value. With a knot strength of more than 250 knots, Caucasian rugs are among the strongest in the entire globe. They are both strong and distinctive because they are woven using the conventional Turkish knotting method. Originally manufactured for nomads, handmade Caucasian rugs needed to be durable enough to withstand inclement weather.

    Caucasian rugs are resistant to fading, loss of colour and wear and tear, unlike most machine-made carpets. You don't have to be concerned if your children or pets trampled the rugs! However, keep your carpets away from bright sunshine and moisture if you want them to last even longer.

    The Patterns Complement Contemporary Home Decor

    Finding the perfect coordinating things for home décor is really tough these days. Some decorative pieces, however, have a global appeal and value, even if it's a traditional Caucasian carpet. Caucasian rugs come in intricate, straightforward patterns that complement any type of interior style. You may select a handmade rug to match your style, whether you like a more traditional setting or a modern, contemporary design. Take Kazak rugs as an example. These carpets have traditional geometric patterns and are available in strong hues of red, blue and beige. They can brighten up your living space and work wonderfully in lighter environments. You can find a dark or light old Caucasian rug that when combined with contemporary home furnishings, may create a very appealing environment.

    When comparing different Caucasian carpets for sale, make an effort to find one that complements the rest of your home's décor. Finding the ideal fit shouldn't take you too long with so many different rug styles available!

  • How Much Do Caucasian Rugs Cost?

    Although Caucasian rugs can occasionally be extremely pricey, their outstanding beauty makes them a wise purchase. Similar to fine art, Caucasian and other traditional rugs are considered very expensive ornamental artefacts, and their value rises with time.

    Depending on the type, quality of the carpet and if it had been through rug repair, the price varies. Because of the interest in antique carpets, there are several carpet cleaning specialists that can add value to a vintage item. Furthermore, some salespeople also base rug prices on the number of knots. Caucasian rugs created by hand are of excellent quality, which explains their expensive price and logically an antique carpet will be more expensive than a modern example.

    The most expensive is often made of silk and appears very differently from wool or cotton, frequently with a wonderful sheen. The cost of a Caucasian rug in good condition can vary from £50 to £50000 based on its age and style.

  • Why Choose London House Rugs?

    You've come to the right place if you're looking for a Caucasian rug! From a floor runner to a huge area rug, London House Rugs offers a variety of Caucasian rugs. You are likely to discover a Caucasian rug for any room in your house, whether you're looking for one with a simple geometric pattern or one with many different colours.

    We've spent more than four decades honing our method and cultivating long-term, ethical connections with weavers all around Asia.

    A London House rug is subject to rigorous sourcing, manufacturing and finishing procedures to assure quality and beauty.

    We spend a lot of time looking for the most beautiful antique carpets and developing long-term ethical relationships with weaving cooperatives in North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia and India.

    Our store has a massive assortment of new and antique rugs in various sizes.

    Please look at some of our recent projects to get a sense of the wide range of services we offer, including everything from a single hearth rug for your house to a hundred handcrafted Persian carpets for a hotel rollout.

    Because we have over 40 years of experience, we can assist you in selecting the ideal rug for your space.

    It is never difficult to turn a plain environment into a vibrant retreat when gorgeous patterns and deep colour palettes of a Caucasian rug are present.

    Incorporating them into interior design is simple, with many hues and pattern options. No matter what style dominates your home - classic, traditional, eclectic, modern, bohemian, minimalist - it may be used in various room settings. With caucasian rugs, the pattern possibilities are essentially endless.